A to Z Minerals & Rock Shop

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Your State's Mineral

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Did you know what your State Mineral is?

 

A to Z Minerals and Rock shop was curious, so we researched and thought we share these interesting tidbits with you.  Many states have more than one.  Why, we don't know?  Oh yes, we might know!   All minerals are absolutely wonderful and it's just too hard to decide which is your favorite; especially, in states that are so rich in minerals!   Enjoy our findings and if you wish to contribute, visit our Facebook Page to drop us a comment!   State Minerals Collections for Sale (see below).

 

FUN FACTS

 

Alabama

Alaska

Hematite was named Alabama's state mineral in 1967.  Hematite is an oxide of iron (Fe2O3), also known as "red iron ore".  Approx. 375 tons have been mined in Alabama between 1840-1975 contributing to the development of Birmingham as an industrial center.   The Birmingham ore was used in casting one of the largest cast iron statue (2nd largest) of "Vulcan" standing over 5 stories on top of Red Mountain.

79Au Gold's atomic number of 79 makes it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally in the universe. It is thought to have been produced in supernova nucleo-synthesis and from the collision of neutron stars and to have been present in the dust from which the Solar System formed.  Gold is the most malleable of all metals and resistant to corrosion.

Arizona

Arkansas

Arizona is nicked named the "Copper State' but is also now for its turquoise which is the state's gemstone.   Copper is versatile and used mainly for its conductive properties.  Most of the copper in mined in Bringham Canyon mine and is important in Utah's economy.  Copper (Cu) atomic number 29 with high thermal & electrical conductivity.  Copper was the first metal to be used by humans (8,000 bc) and the first mineral to be smelted (5,000 bc) and used in alloyed with tin to create bronze (3,500 bc)

Quartz (SiO4) is the earth's 2nd most abundant mineral (after feldspar) with a Mohs Sale of 7.  There are many varieties such as: Chalcedony, Onyx, Agate, Jasper, Aventurine, Citrine,  Amethyst, Rose Quartz, Prasiolite, Smokey Quartz, Carnelian, Milky Quartz, Tiger's Eye, Dumortierite Quartz, Rutilated Quartz.

California (1st state to name a state rock)

Colorado

79Au Gold's atomic number of 79 makes it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally in the universe. It is thought to have been produced in supernova nucleosynthesis and from the collision of neutron stars and to have been present in the dust from which the Solar System formed.  Gold is the most malleable of all metals and resistant to corrosion.

The only state whose geology reflects their flag:  Rhodochrosite (red), Yule Marble (white) and Aquamarine (blue).

 

Connecticut

Delaware

Almandine Garnet Fe2+3Al2Si3O12was named CT mineral in 1977.  An ancient gem, named 'garnata' iin the 13th cy by Albert Magnus.  Mohr scale of 7 and useful as an abrasive of which the state contributed to grinding wheels, saws and garnet paper/sandpaper.  Almandine is one end-member of the garnet family with garnet pyrope the other.  Almandine is the ferrous iron end member. Sillimanite (Al2SiO5) has a fibrous texture like wood and could be cut into cabochon jewelry much like 'cat's eye' effect.  Large masses of this mineral are found in boulders at Brandywine Springs.  Sillimanite forms at temps greater than 550 C and is coarse grain.  It isn't mined, however.   Adopted in 1977 by the DE General Assembly.

Florida

Georgia

Agatized Coral which occurs when silica in the ocean waters hardens replacing the coral with a form of quarts known as chalcedony over a 20-30 million year process known as pseudomorph (meaning one mineral  has replaced another without loosing its original form).  In 1979, Florida designated agatized coral as its state stone.   Agaztize coral are found in Tampa Bay, Econfina River and the Withlacoochee/Suwannie River beds. Staurolite was adopted as the state's mineral in 1976. Twin crystals are found in cross shapes and sometimes referred to as Fairy Crosses or Cross Rocks.  These crystals are often found embedded in larger rocks in cliffs at the base of mountains.  Fe2+2Al9O6(SiO4)4(O,OH)2 of magnesium, zinc and manganese.  Mohr scale 7-7.5 with brittle tenacity.

Hawaii

Idaho

Hawaii does not have a state mineral.  Olivine, while not official, is representative of Hawaii's geology and is the primary mineral in the lava's and beach sands.  Black coral was named the official state gem in 1987.  Black corals are animals that live in colonies up to 6'.  Black coral is related to sea anemones and stony coral, sometimes called "little thorn corals" because of the spines.   Black coral has been used for centuries as a charm and medicine with the power to ward off evil and injury.

Star Garnet, the only two places in the world are Idaho Panhandle National Forest and India.  Star garnets have unique properties that cause they to reflect like 4 or 6 pointed stars.  The Forest service still allows the public collection in their stockpile of garnet bearing gravel which the public can run through.  It is found in pegmatites, garnetiferous schist, mica schist and other metamorphic rocks

Illinois

Indiana

Flourite in pure form (CaF2), made of the elements calcium (Ca) and fluorine (F), is colorless. The various colors result from tiny amounts of other elements substituting for the calcium in the crystalline structure.  Hot water containing flourine and other chemicals rose from the deep earth during the Jurassic Period.  When hot brines reached the calcium-rich rocks, the temperature were right for crystallization along the walls of faults and flat-lying layers to the beds of limestone.  It has been mined in IL since the 1800's for toothpaste to organic fluoride chemicals. Salem Limestone, also known as Bedford limestone and quarried in south central Indiana.  It noted to be the highest quality quarried limestone in the US.  Limestone, is primarily formed of calcium carbonate and deposited over millions of years as marine fossils decomposed at the bottom of shallow inland seas.  Most of the Midwestern US was covered with inland seas during the Mississippian period.  The Native Americans were the first to discover the limestone, and later American settlers.  First quarried in 1927, and is in much of the 19th & early 20th American architecture.

Iowa

Kansas

In 1967, to promote tourism, Iowa named the geode as its state rock.  "Geode" by Greek origin means earth-like.   Geodes are shaped like the earth with an outershell with a core of sparkling minerals.  Geodes become as bubbles n volcanic rock or as animal burrows, balls of mud or tree roots in sedimentary rock.   Over a period of million of years, layers of silica cool, forming crystals of different minerals within the cavity.  Southeastern Iowa is one of the state's largest collecting area. Kansas has not named a state mineral or gemstone.  Common rocks found in Kansas are limestone, sandstone and shale being the most common.  Some of the limestone are embedded with chert/flint.
Kentucky

Louisiana

Coal as the coal industry is an integral part of the economy.  Bituminous coal is an organic sedimentary rock by diagenetic and sub metamorphic compression of peat bog materials.  The carbon context of coal is about 60-80%; the rest water, air, hydrogen and sulfur.

Agate is a variety of silica, mainly chalcedony of the quartz family.  Agates are found in various kinds of rock, and are often associated with volcanic rocks and metamorphic rock.  Mohs sale of 6.5-7.  In ancient times, agate was used in the art of hardstone carving.  In 1976, Louisiana named it the state mineral and gemstone.

Maine

Maryland

Maine's tourmaline ranges from black, white red, green, blue and watermelon.  It can rival some of the world-famous.  The first fine of tourmaline was in 1820 at the Mt. Mica in Paris found by local boys.  The Hamlin Necklace, held in the Harvard University, as Maine Tourmaline.   Local mines included Dunton Mine, Mt. Mica, Black Mtn.  (fees)  Black tourmaline (schorl) is most common; with the less common like elbaite (named of the island of Elba, Italy) is rare.

Patuxn River Stone Agate is the state gem for Maryland, adopted 2005; but Maryland doesn't have a state mineral.  These beauties have wisps of red and yellow and a translucent glow with a bone pattern.  Newly discovered, they are starting to use fur carving, and jewelry work.  They are silica replacement fragments of petrified pone estimated at 115 million years old.

Massachusetts

Michigan

Babingtonite is a calcium iron manganese inosilicate mineral Ca2(Fe,Mn)FeSi5O14(OH).   It is dark green to black translucent (thin crystals or splinters), and occurs with zeolite minerals in volcanic rocks.  Mohs scale of 5.50 to 6.

Petoskey Stone is a fossil pebble formed by glaciation when sheets of ice sent the stones from the bedrock to the lower portion of Michigan.   They are fragments of a coral reef during the Daveonian period.  When polished, these stones have a unique mottled patter of 6 sized coral fossils.  In 1965, it was named the state stone and commonly found on beaches or sand dunes.  Note:  don't remove more than 25 lbs. per state law on state lands.

Minnesota

Mississippi

Lake Superior Agate is Minnesota's state gemstone, adopted in 1969; but Binghamite, Thompsonite and Pipestone were under consideration.  During the lava eruptions about a billion years ago, the agates were formed in the gas pockets (vesicles).  Quartz filled these pockets to form the agate, then the groundwater carrying ferric iron and other mineral added to the agate making banding patterns.  Predominant red due to the iron . is the major industrial mineral for the state.  Glacial movement picked up the agates

Petrified Wood is fossilized remains of terrestrial vegetation, tree or tree-like plants having transitioned into to stone by the process of permineralization.  The organic matter has been replaced with minerals.  The petrifaction process occurs underground buried under sediment.  The lack of oxygen inhibits decomposition.  Mineral laden water flows through the material in the plant's cells.  As the plan cellulose decays, a stone molds form in its place.

Missouri

Montana

Missouri's nickname is the Lead State and Galena is the main ore of lead and used since ancient times.   It was applied around the eyes to reduce the glare of the desert sun and to repel flies.  It was also used in "potters ore in glazes.  Galena was uses as a semi conductor in crystal radio receivers.  Galena contains about 1 to 2% silver and the main ore for lead now because of its low melting point for smelting. 

Montana agate and sapphires.   Sapphires during the gold rush time were angered by the miners as it clogged the gold sluices.  It was after the 1890's that a London investor took notice and invested.  The Brit's controlled the mines for nearly 30 years.  Montana agates are equal recognized for the ever-varying designs and sought after by jewelers.

Nebraska

Nevada

Prairie Agate was declared Nebraska's state rock in 1967 and is abundant, especially in the Oglala Nat'l Glasslands.  Agate is a variegated quartz with layers of varieties.  It is popular for jewelry

Nevada's state mineral is sandstone and they have lots of gorgeous sandstone to carve.  Their state gem- stone is interesting fire opal from the Virgin Valley, and semi precious is turquoise.  They prize their opal, born from super volcanoes over 17 million years ago.  The Royal Peacock Mines are open to the public (fees).

Sandstone, a sedimentary rock, forming in many layers, or cross bedding, to make some interesting "Picture Rocks"

New Hampshire

New Jersey

Beryl is a gemstone commonly found in granite rock which is abundant in New Hampshire.   Beryl crystals are yellow-green and yellow.

 

New Hampshire has three state minerals (Beryl, Garnet and Smoky Quartz); however, Beryl was adopted in 1985.  A2Z proudly has a NY beryl (here)

Unofficially New Jersey has a an important Magnetite ore.  In the 19th century, New Jersey was the principal supplier of magnetite.  Now due to the high costs of mining there are about 500 abandoned mines.  Magnetite is still important to geologist du to the magnetic properties, and the well-formed crystals are popular with collectors, and polished into the nice jewelry.   Alternative therapy believe the magnetic field can have beneficial effects.  A 2 Z carries a small line of crushed magnetite.

New Mexico

New York

 

Formed by the action of percolating acidic aqueous solutions during weathering and oxidation.  Found in arid regions, filling in cavities and fractures.

 

Turquoise is often found with limonite and other iron oxides.   Normally blue, but turns green when heated due to dehydration.

New York is ranked first in industrial garnet production in the US.  Barton Mines is the largest garnet producer.  Barton extracts its garnet from Ruby Mountain the town of Johnsburg (home to one of A2Z's partners).  NY's garnets have too many internal imperfections to be used in jewelry, but its high-quality abrasive properties are used for sandpaper, sandblasting, water filtration and water jet stone cutting.  A2Z proudly has a product line of garnet. (here)

North Carolina

North Dakota

79Au Gold's atomic number of 79 makes it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally in the universe. It is thought to have been produced in supernova nucleosynthesis and from the collision of neutron stars and to have been present in the dust from which the Solar System formed.  Gold is the most malleable of all metals and resistant to corrosion.

North Dakota has not established a state mineral, but is abundant in clay, coal, salt, sand, gravel, volcanic ash and produces uranium in the southwestern regions.   North Dakota has many fossil areas such as Bismark, Prembian Gorge, Marmarth, Medora and Whiskey Creek.

Ohio

Oklahoma

Flint is a sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of mineral quartz, categorized as chert.  Flint occurs in chalk or marly limestone formed in the Jurassic or Cretaceous beds.

Barite (Rose Rock) - the formation of crystal structures that a rose like which incur in arid sand conditions such as evaporated shallow salt basins.  The Oklahoma roses take on a rustic tone due to the iron oxides.  Formed during the Permian period, 2500 million years ago when Oklahoma was covered with shallow sea.  Oklahoma selected the Rose Rock for its state mineral in 1968.  The largest sign rose rock recorded was 17" but normal single range is from .5 to 4" while clusters can be 39" over over 1,000 lbs.

Oregon

Pennsylvania

Thunderegg that was formed with a rhyolitic lava flow said by the native Americans to have been created by thunder spirits that lived in the craters.  Most Thundereggs are about baseball size with a center of chalcedony and a outer core of agate, jasper or opal.  In 1965, Oregon designated the Thunderegg as their state rock and claim the world's largest at 1.75 tons (found at the Rice Northwest Museum)

Pennsylvania has no established state mineral.  Celestine was proposed, but not approved.  Anthracite coal is a highly prized.  Before mining it was estimated that there was 22.8 billion tons; and still in 2001, 12 billion still remain.  Coal is an organic sedimentary rock that forms from the accumulation of plant material, usually in a swampy environment.   The debris dies, falls into standing water and is protected from decay because of the lack of oxygen.  Once a thick layer is produced and buried  by sediments of mud or sand, the weight transforms into coal.

Rhode Island

South Carolina

Cumberlandite is an extremely rare rock

found only in the Iron Mine Hill.  This igneous rock formed millions of years ago when a volcano spewed its lava which comprised of

24 minerals mixed with the molten rock.  It then cooled, formed a brownish-black, iron rich, magnetic rock with white crystals.  Cumberlandite is sacred to the Nipmuck tribe and used by settlers to make cannons, weapons and tools.

Blue Granite was adopted as the state's mineral in 1969 and unique to the Midlands and Piedmont regions.  Referred to as Winnsboro Blue Granite, it is light-blue or gray stone.  Granite is an igneous stone  that was formed when the magma was trapped beneath the surface.  It mixed with other stones and particles, then cooled slowly and then crystallizing.

South Dakota

Tennessee

Rose quartz was designated the state mineral in 1966, and their prize Fairburn Agate in 1966 as the gemstone.  Fairburns are valued for their colorful patterns with reds, oranges and blacks.    South Dakota's rose quartz contains small amounts of element titanium, and range from pale pink to rose-red.  South Dakota's quartz can exhibit asterism (star shaped).  The Southern Black Hills is estimated to have 24,000 pegmatite intrusions that were formed in the Precambrian period.

Agate was chose twice!  First as the state stone and 40 years later as the state's mineral.  One can certainly understand, as the color range and swirl combinations are great for collectors and lapidary work.   "Paint Rock" is Tennessee's fame.  A rarer agate found in TN is the iris agate located a Horse Mtn. which is highly translucent with fine bands.  As light passes through, light hits the tiny bands breaking the light into separate rays (natural diffraction grating).

Texas

Utah

Silver47Ag is a lustrous transition metal possessing the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and reflectivity of any mineral.  A precious metal, like gold, that is malleable and takes a high polish.  In some languages, silver is meant to mean money.  Silver & gold was used in coinage world-wide. Silver is projected to be a heavy user in upcoming the solar industry.

Utah's State Legislature enacted copper as the state mineral in 1994.  Copper is versatile and used mainly for its conductive properties.  Most of the copper in mined in Bringham Canyon mine and is important in Utah's economy.  Copper (Cu) atomic number 29 with high thermal & electrical conductivity.  Copper was the first metal to be used by humans (8,000 bc) and the first mineral to be smelted (5,000 bc) and used in alloyed with tin to create bronze (3,500 bc)

Vermont

Virginia

Talc is a clay mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 and widely used in baby powder, or known as talcum powder.  Mors sale of and used in many applications such as making plastic, paint and coatings, rubber, food, electric cabin, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and ceramics.  Other minerals mined in Vermont are marble, slate and granite.  Danby Marble has been used in famous buildings.

Nelsonite just adopted in 2016,

 

No state mineral has been designated for Virginia but the geology has coal mining in three mountainous regions, and produce slate, kyanite, sand and gravel.  There are over 4,000 caves of which these are open to the public.  Luray Cavern (the largest in the eastern USA), Shenandoah Caverns, Endless Caverns and Skyline Caverns, Grand Caverns, Dixie Caverns, Natural Bridge Caverns, and Gap Caverns.

Washington

West Virginia

 

Petrified Wood was established the national gem in 1975. 

 

See Mississippi for details on petrified wood formation.

Coal as the coal industry is an integral part of the economy.  Bituminous coal is an organic sedimentary rock by digenetic and sub metamorphic compression of peat bog materials.  The carbon context of coal is about 60-80%; the rest water, air, hydrogen and sulfur.

Wisconsin

Wyoming

Galena is the main ore of lead and used since ancient times.   It was applied around the eyes to reduce the glare of the desert sun and to repel flies.  It was also used in "potters ore in glazes.  Galena was uses as a semi conductor in crystal radio receivers.  Galena contains about 1 to 2% silver and the main ore for lead now because of its low melting point for smelting. 

Nephrite is a variety of calcium and magnesium-rich amphilbole mineral actinolite Ca2(Mg, Fe)5Si8O22(OH)2.  It is one of the two different species called jade.   It is an ornamental rock with Mohr scale of 6 to 7 hardness.  In prehistoric sites they find nephrite beads, button and tubular shapes.  Also used for knives and weapons as they can be shaped.    Wyoming adopted this gemstone in 1967.

 

FOR SALE - State Collection

We're glad to have found this old collection.  It was incomplete when found, but we thought it would be fun for collectors working their knowledge of their own state's minerals.  We broke it up (as it was already broken :-), so you can enjoy state mineral collecting.     $1.00 each mineral w/vintage label, plus minimal postage.

 

(Click on any picture to enlarge)

Arizona

Arkansas

AZ State Mineral Collection for Sale

Set of 16  $16.00 USD

Arkansas State Mineral Collection for Sale

Set of 8  $8.00 USD

California

Connecticut

California State Mineral Collection for Sale

Set of 17  $17.00 USD

Connecticut State Mineral Collection for Sale

Set of 9  $9.00 USD

Florida

Georgia

Florida State Mineral Collection

Set of 2   $2.00 USD

Georgia State Mineral Collection

Set of 3  $3.00 USD

Missouri

Montana

Missouri State Mineral Collection for Sale

Set of 8   $8.00 USD

Montana State Mineral Collection

Set of 4  $4.00 USD

Nevada

New York

State of Nevada Mineral Collection

Set of 3 $3.00

New York Mineral Collection for Sale

Set of 12  $12.00 USD

North Carolina

Oklahoma

State of North Carolina Mineral Collection for Sale

Set of 6  $6.00 USD

Oklahoma State Minerals for sale

Set of 2 $2.00 USD

South Dakota

Vermont

South Dakota State Mineral Collection

Set of 8 $8.00 USD

Vermont Mineral Collection for Sale

Set of 2 $2.00 USD

 

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